Validating a Modified 300m Shuttle Run Test for Combat Sport Athletes
K. D. Anglos, L.A. Stuart-Hill, and C.A Gaul
School of Exercise Science, Physical and Health Education, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2, Canada.
A modified 300 metre shuttle run (MOD) test using shorter shuttle distances (10 m) than the standard 300 metre shuttle run (STA) version (20 m) may be more applicable to combat sport athletes whose competition area is typically only 102metres. The purpose of this study was to validate a modified 300 metre shuttle run test to measure anaerobic capacity. Sixteen university-aged participants (10 male, 6 female) performed three fitness tests measuring anaerobic capacity: the Cunningham & Faulkner (CUN) test , the STA shuttle run and the MOD shuttle run. Participants completed all tests in the same order (MOD, STA, then CUN), with 5 minutes rest in between trials. Both STA and MOD shuttle tests were performed in the same location, on the same surface. Statistical analyses included evaluating the relationship between all three tests using a Pearson Correlation analysis and the comparison of mean performance times for the MOD and STA tests. A significant relationship was found between the MOD and STA tests (r=.987; p<0.001) and between the CUN test and both STA (r=-.915 p<0.01) and MOD (r=-.935 p<0.01) shuttle tests. The MOD performance times were significantly slower (p<0.05) than performance of the STA, with MOD completion times being 15% longer than the STA for the same 300m test distance. The results provide evidence that the MOD provides a measure of anaerobic fitness comparable to previously determined valid and reliable STA and CUN anaerobic capacity tests. A transition to implementation of MOD with athletes formerly tested using STA should consider the 15% slower performance observed in this study. The findings support the MOD as a valid field-based test of anaerobic capacity for combat sports that involve smaller than 202metre competition space. Future research will be conducted to determine the reliability of the MOD shuttle test.
Establishing a Standardized Fitness Test Battery for Karate Athletes
K. Anglos, C.A. Gaul and L.A. Stuart-Hill
School of Exercise Science, Physical and Health Education, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 2Y2, Canada.
The purpose of this study was to conduct a physical demands analysis (PDA) of the sport of karate and establish a standardized karate athlete field-based physical fitness test battery (KAFT) for both kata and kumite athletes. The PDA consisted of heart rate analysis and accelerometry, a movement analysis of elite karate performance by an expert panel (consisting of high performance coaches, committee members, and a retired athlete), and a review of the current combative sport literature. To evaluate the intensity of competitive karate, five experienced karate athletes (4 males, 1 female; mean age 24 years old; mean training experience 5 years at both provincial and national level) were monitored using accelerometers (Actical) and heart rate monitors (Polar) during simulated competitions (n=3). The results of all parts of the PDA were used to inform the development of the KAFT, as well as rationalize the inclusion of each test in the battery. The PDA identified the physical requirements for karate athletes to include powerful lower body (kicking) and upper body (punching) performance, flexibility, balance, agility, short burst high intensity output (70-100% heart rate maximum), and aerobic fitness. From these findings, the KAFT was developed using field-based tests that measure lower (vertical jump) and upper body (seated medicine ball put) muscular power, hip flexibility (lateral split test), single leg balance (modified bass test), anaerobic capacity (modified 300 metre shuttle test), agility (T-Test) and maximal aerobic power (Leger 20m shuttle run test). This study provides physiological profiling of Canadian karate athletes and supports a preliminary field-based fitness test battery specific for karate training and performance. In future research the KAFT will be used to establish normative data and determine desired karate fitness performance standards for Canadian karate athletes of all levels.